The cervix connects the uterine body with the vagina. Read more about the structure and function of the cervix!


The cervix (cervix uteri) is the connection from the uterine cavity to the vagina. At the upper end of the inner cervix sits, at the bottom of the outer cervix. Certain cervical glands produce the cervical mucus: its amount and consistency change throughout the menstrual cycle. Read everything important about the cervix!

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  • What is the cervix?

  • What is the function of the cervix?

  • Where is the cervix?

  • What problems can the cervix cause?

What is the cervix?

The cervix (uterine cervix) is the lower part of the uterus, which merges with the cervix into the vagina. He has a thick layer of mucous membrane and closes outward with the outer cervix and inwardly - towards the uterus - with the inner cervix from the uterus.

The cervical length is individually different. On average, it is three to five centimeters.

Viewed from the side, the uterine cervix is ​​bent forwards against the uterus (anteflexion) and angled forward towards the axis of the vagina (anteversion). These two positions of the cervix are individually different.

What is the function of the cervix?

The cervix forms a tough, sticky mucus (cervical mucus). This forms on the infertile days of the woman an effective barrier against sperm and ascending germs from the vagina. On fertile days (around ovulation) the mucus formed by the cervix becomes clear and spinnable and permeable to sperm - but also to ascending germs.

During fertilization, the cervix uteri pushes forward a bit and thus absorbs the sperm via the outer cervix. The sperm pass through the cervix into the uterus and into the fallopian tubes. During menstruation, blood enters the vagina from the uterus via the cervix.

During pregnancy, not only does the uterus grow, but the uterine cervix also changes shape: it is stretched and shortened to one to two centimeters, but should be about two and a half inches before the birth date. The decrease in cervical length is an important indicator of the progression of pregnancy.

Where is the cervix?

The cervix (cervix uteri) is the connection between the uterine body and the vagina (vagina). The lowest section protrudes like a portio like a pin into the vagina; in the middle sits the outer cervix.

The anterior surface of the uterus, which points downwards due to the cervix of the cervix (anteflexio and anteversio), rests on the urinary bladder. The posterior surface, which faces up, is adjacent to the small intestine. By different filling conditions of the neighboring organs so also the exact position of the uterus is influenced.

What problems can the cervix cause?

Inflammation of the cervix (cervixitis) is caused by ascending pathogens from the vagina. Most infections are transmitted sexually. Signs of cervical inflammation are purulent discharge as well as itching and burning of the vagina.

A weakness of the cervix (cervical insufficiency) can lead to premature birth in pregnant women.

The cervix uteri is lined on the inside by a mucous membrane, which differs from the mucosa of the uterine cavity. In the transition region of the two tissue types cell changes can easily arise. Are these malignant, is it cervical cancer:

Cervical cancer usually shows no symptoms in pre- and early stages. It is usually only discovered during a gynecological check-up. The first signs can be intermediate and spotting bleeding or bleeding after the menopause.

Cervical cancer is often caused by infection with Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV), which enter the vagina during sexual intercourse. These viruses multiply especially in the cells of the cervix uteri. In order to prevent infection, there is a vaccine against HPV, which is recommended in nine- to four-year-old girls.

Chlamydia infection increases the risk of developing a malignant tumor cervix.

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