Conduction system

The conduction system ensures an orderly contraction of the heart muscle. Read more about it!

Conduction system

The Conduction system or conduction system is a system of specifically remodeled myocardial fibers. It conducts the regular electrical impulses generated by the so-called pacemaker cells across the entire heart muscle, causing it to rhythmically contract. Read everything important about the conduction system!

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Conduction system

  • What is the conduction system?

  • Pacemaker generates electrical impulses

  • Conduction system: forwarding the pulses

  • Influence of the nervous system

  • What problems can occur in the conduction system?

What is the conduction system?

The conduction system consists of various specialized cardiac muscle cells, which transmit electrical impulses, causing the heart muscle to rhythmically contract.

Read also

  • AV node
  • aorta
  • aortic valve
  • artery
  • blood vessels
  • blood circulation
  • heart
  • heart valves
  • Coronary artery
  • Heartbeat

Pacemaker generates electrical impulses

The electrical impulses are generated by so-called pacemaker cells. They are mainly located in two structures: sinus node (the primary pacemaker of the heart) and AV node (secondary pacemaker). They both sit in the right atrium and together represent the arousal formation system.

Normally, the sinus node generates the electrical impulses, which then propagate through the atria in the course of the atrial contraction to the AV node. This is located on the border to the ventricle. From here, the excitement passes through the conduction system to the ventricles, which then contract.

Like the sinus node, the AV node is capable of spontaneous, automatic impulse formation. However, this only comes into play when the sinus node fails as a primary pacemaker, because the natural frequency of the AV node is 40 to 50 pulses per minute, well below that of the sinus node with about 70 pulses per minute.

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Conduction system: forwarding the pulses

The conduction system (excitation conduction system), as mentioned, ensures that the electrical impulses extend to the entire working musculature of the heart, followed by a contraction of the heart chambers. The impulses are transmitted via defined pathways of specialized myocardial cells: his bundle, tawara thighs and purkinje fibers.

The bundle of His pulls from the AV node through the valve plane to the septum between the two main chambers (chamber septum). There it splits into two branches, which are called Tawara legs (chamber legs). The right thigh pulls on the right side of the chamber septum to the apex of the heart, the left thigh on the left septum side. Both tawara thighs branch off here to the Purkinje fibers. These run within the working muscles of the heart and finally transmit the electrical impulses to the individual muscle cells of the heart chambers so that they contract. This forces the blood from the left ventricle into the main artery (aorta) and from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery (pulmonary artery).

Influence of the nervous system

The conduction system is influenced by the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic). Through stimulation of the sympathetic heart rate and heart strength are increased, by stimulation of the parasympathetic heart rate decreases by a decrease in pacemaker frequency in the sinus node.

What problems can occur in the conduction system?

Any part of the conduction system may experience a malfunction. For example, in the atrioventricular block (AV block), the excitation conduction between the atria and the ventricles is delayed or temporarily interrupted. Most often, this happens in the elderly as a result of degenerative changes in the heart, such as coronary heart disease (CHD) or after a heart attack.

The Conduction system may also have a disorder in the area of ​​the tawara thighs (chamber legs), which is referred to as intraventricular blockage (bundle branch).

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