Hiv test

An hiv test can be done free of charge and anonymously at the health department. Read how the hiv infection can be proven!

Hiv test

With a HIV test Find out if anyone has been infected with the HI virus (HIV) - the causative agent of AIDS. In order to be able to make a precise statement, two tests are always carried out. Also important for a meaningful result is the time of the investigation. Read more about how a rapid HIV test can prove which other tests there are and where you can get an HIV test!

ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in doctor's letters or on incapacity certificates. Z21B23B22B24

Product Overview

HIV test

  • HIV test: When and where?

  • HIV test: obligation to register

  • HIV test: blood donation

  • HIV test: standard procedure

  • HIV: PCR test

  • HIV self-test is prohibited

  • HIV test: blood count not suitable

HIV test: When and where?

An HIV test is a blood test designed to confirm or rule out HIV infection. He is colloquially called AIDS test. However, since the test detects the causative agent of AIDS, the HI virus, the term HIV test is more correct.

If you are worried that you have been infected with HIV, for example, through unprotected intercourse or a burst condom, you should get tested. Even if you and your partner decide to have sex without condoms in the future, an HIV test is recommended for both of them. Health department, family doctor, various specialists such as gynecologists and AIDS counseling centers are the right place to go.

The general practitioner will first ask you in detail about her medical history (anamnesis). After that, he takes blood from you and sends it to a lab for further investigation. In AIDS counseling centers an anonymous HIV test is possible.

HIV test: obligation to register

If an HIV test in the laboratory is positive, this must be reported to the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), but without naming the patient - this remains anonymous for the RKI. The institute collects all reporting data to provide an overview of the current spread of HIV infection in Germany.

HIV test: blood donation

Since 1985, HIV testing has been routinely used in Germany prior to a blood donation. So one wants to avoid that by a blood transfusion the HI virus is transferred to the receiver. Some people use the blood donation as a regular HIV test, which is not advisable: Apart from the fact that an HIV test can detect an infection only some time after the infection, the blood donation test is not anonymous, and you get one positive test result sometimes no further advice. Better is therefore the passage to the health department: HIV test and AIDS counseling are offered there anonymously and free of charge.

HIV test: standard procedure

Typically, indirect testing is used to detect or exclude HIV infection. For a safe diagnosis two tests are made:

in the first test the patient's blood is tested for antibodies to the HI. The body begins on average 22 days after infection with the formation of such antibodies. Surely they are present in the blood after three months and can then be detected in a so-called immunoassay. If there are antibodies against the HI virus, it is called a positive test result.

Because of the time window between infection and antibody formation, a negative test can only tell you about the time before the past three months. HIV-negative does not mean that a fresh infection can be ruled out.

The test for antibodies to HIV is called HIV rapid test and is colloquially falsely referred to as AIDS rapid test. The HIV test duration is about 30 minutes. The patient usually receives the result after a few days.

After a positive test result in the first proof will be confirmed second test carried out. Antigens of the virus are detected in the patient's blood. Antigens are protein structures of the virus against which the antibodies are directed. Six weeks after HIV infection, the test becomes positive.

Only if a patient has been tested positive in both tests, he is considered HIV-positive.

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    11 important facts about AIDS

    Even if one hears less about it than before, AIDS is far from being defeated. Because the enemy is tiny and incredibly changeable: the "Human Immunodeficiency Virus", HIV for short, captures immune cells and harnesses them for its own purposes. This weakens the immune system and makes the body susceptible to disease. Therefore the name AIDS, which stands for German for "Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome". The most important facts for you at a glance.

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    AIDS is young

    AIDS has not accompanied people for so long. In 1981, the disease was first described.Originally, HIV was found mainly in developing countries, but made its triumphal march around the world from there. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 36.9 million people were infected with HIV at the end of 2014 - 80,000 of them in Germany. But: still around 95 percent of infected people live in Third World countries.

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    HIV comes from monkeys

    Experts are pretty sure today that HIV originally came from monkeys. Similar viruses have been found in chimpanzees and gorillas. Comparisons of the genetic material of the pathogens show that the jump to humans took place at the beginning of the 20th century. HIV may then be spread through the intravenous treatment of tropical diseases - because by the 1930s to the 1950s, today's standards of hygiene were not yet in place.

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    AIDS is deadly

    Even though the life expectancy of a person living with HIV or AIDS is much higher today than it was just a few years ago, AIDS still demands a high toll, especially in developing countries. In 2014, WHO estimates, 1.2 million people worldwide died of the virus. According to Robert Koch Institute (RKI) were among them 480 Germans. In many cases, it is pneumonia or tuberculosis that cause death due to the weakened immune system of AIDS patients.

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    HIV is transmitted during sex

    HI viruses are transmitted via blood or infectious bodily fluids, including semen, vaginal secretions and the fluid film of the intestinal mucosa. As a result, HIV infections occur mainly via unprotected sexual contact. Small injuries in the skin can then cause the virus to invade. The following applies: the higher the viral load in the body fluid, the more likely it is to get involved.

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    Breastfeeding is dangerous, saliva is not

    HIV is not only spread through sex. In some cases, people have been infected with blood (such as blood products, syringes). Likewise, mothers with HIV can infect their children at birth and breastfeeding. What many do not know: HIV is not spread when kissing or sneezing. By intact skin, the virus can not penetrate into the body anyway. Social coexistence with an HIV-infected person therefore carries no risk of infection.

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    HIV is often misunderstood at first

    In most cases, two to three weeks after infection, the first symptoms are relatively mild. They are usually misinterpreted as a flu infection, with fever, swollen lymph nodes, dysphagia and sometimes diarrhea. After that, the viruses behave inconspicuously - this phase can take months or even years. According to the RKI, only around 50 percent of those affected show symptoms of AIDS disease ten years after initial infection.

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    HIV slumbers in the body for a long time

    The HI viruses infest in the body especially the so-called helper cells, which are part of the body's immune system, and destroys them. Helper cells coordinate the use of the immune system. The less of them there, the worse diseases are warded off -AIDS often makes itself creeping noticeable. The first symptoms are unremarkable. The affected people feel initially unwell, the mucous membranes change and there are indigestion.

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    HIV-infected: easy target for pathogens

    Finally, the number of helper cells decreases so much that the body can no longer defend itself properly against intruders. Infections that are harmless to other people are more likely to have fatal complications in people with AIDS. Particularly feared are tuberculosis and pneumonia.

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    HIV is treatable, not curable

    Science is intensively researching a cure for HIV. So far, the life of those affected with medication can only be prolonged. The sooner the disease is recognized and treated, the better. Therapy also reduces the risk of infection for others by reducing the number of HI viruses in the blood. In many developing countries, infected people have poor access to medicines or are too expensive.

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    HIV test gives security

    Information about a possible infection is an HIV test, which can be done at the doctor. It is examined whether already detect viruses or virus component. Who is tested negative six weeks after the suspected infection time, most likely not infected. Overall, there are still too few people to test. The WHO estimates that around half of those infected do not know about their condition.

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    Safe sex protects against HIV

    "Give AIDS no chance - protect condoms," the advertising slogan of the Federal Center for Health Education brings it to the point. Condoms are the most important remedy in the fight against HIV. Safer sex, however, also means that during intercourse, sperm, vaginal fluid, intestinal secretions or blood do not enter the body of the partner. Researchers are also working on the development of a vaccine against HIV, but that is still a dream of the future.

HIV: PCR test

In individual cases, HIV infections are detected by the laboratory via the genetic material of the virus in the blood (viral nucleic acids). The search for the viral genome is carried out by HIV-PCR test. PCR stands for polymerase chain reaction: The nucleic acids are first multiplied and then broken down by their properties. The genetic material is already detectable in the blood eleven days after infection, so this procedure is used, for example, in newborns of HIV-positive mothers.

Read more about the investigations

  • blood collection
  • blood test

HIV self-test is prohibited

An HIV Home Test is banned in Germany. It does not provide sufficient accuracy and confirmatory test for a positive result. There is also no adequate personal advice. Therefore, look for an HIV test family doctor, health department or AIDS counseling!

HIV test: blood count not suitable

HIV infection can not be detected by a simple blood count study. In the blood picture, the individual blood cells are determined in number and compared with the normal values. In the course of HIV infection, changes in the blood picture may occur, such as a decrease in white blood cells (leukocytes). These changes are only useful to monitor the course of HIV infection. As HIV test a blood count can not be used.

These laboratory values ​​are important

  • leukocytes


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