Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and adolescents. Here you will learn everything, that you have to know!

Medulloblastoma

The medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and adolescents. It grows very fast in the cerebellum area and often causes increased intracranial pressure with headache and nausea. The tumor can be operated, irradiated and treated with chemotherapeutic agents. About half of those affected can be cured by this intensive therapy. Here you read all important information about the medulloblastoma.

ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in doctor's letters or on incapacity certificates. D43C71D33

Product Overview

medulloblastoma

  • Medulloblastoma: description

  • Medulloblastoma: symptoms

  • Medulloblastoma: causes and risk factors

  • Medulloblastoma: examinations and diagnosis

  • Medulloblastoma: treatment

  • Examination and treatment

  • Medulloblastoma: disease course and prognosis

Medulloblastoma: description

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and adolescents, accounting for 20%. In a city like Cologne with about one million inhabitants, about five children under the age of 15 suffer from it each year. Most often, the medulloblastoma is diagnosed between the fifth and eighth year of life. Boys are more often affected than girls. In adults, the tumor occurs much less often. Medulloblastoma accounts for only about one percent of all brain tumors.

Predominantly the tumors arise in the posterior fossa. In children, they are mostly in the middle, in adults more likely to be found laterally in the cerebellum. In many patients the medulloblastoma grows into the cerebral waterways. This allows tumor cells to spread very easily over the brain water in the rest of the brain and also in the spinal canal. If these cells settle in a new place and form a daughter tumor there, one speaks of metastases. In every third affected person, the medulloblastoma was already scattered at the time of diagnosis. In most cases, the tumor settlements are located in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Very rarely they arise in a bone or in the bone marrow.

The medulloblastoma enlarges very fast and can grow into the surrounding tissue. Therefore, it is classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as very malignant (grade IV). In addition, medulloblastomas are subdivided once again according to their tissue type:

  • classic medulloblastoma
  • desmoplastic medulloblastoma
  • nodular (nodular) medulloblastoma
  • Anaplastic medulloblastoma
  • large-cell medulloblastoma

Therapy and prognosis may differ between these individual tumor types.

Medulloblastoma: symptoms

Since a medulloblastoma grows very fast, symptoms develop early. The tumor takes place in the head and often moves the brain waterways - that is, the brain water can not drain properly. It builds up, which increases the intracranial pressure, and it can cause a hydrocephalus. Especially headache, morning sickness and vomiting as well as dizziness are typical signs of the pressure increase in the skull. In addition, sufferers can sometimes concentrate worse, feel tired and suffer from sleep disorders. Some develop vision problems.

The medulloblastoma displaces mostly cerebellar structures. As a result, patients often can not properly coordinate their movements and have difficulty walking. In principle, different muscle groups can be paralyzed.

Medulloblastoma: causes and risk factors

The medulloblastoma is formed by embryonic cells (ie very immature and undifferentiated cells) of the central nervous system. Why such cells suddenly begin to multiply uncontrollably is not yet clear. However, it could be observed that the tumor occurs more frequently in connection with certain chromosomal changes. As a risk factor for a medulloblastoma is ionizing radiation: Children who had to be irradiated because of another malignant disease ever before, therefore, have an increased risk of disease.

Medulloblastoma: examinations and diagnosis

Patients with brain tumor symptoms often visit their family doctor or pediatrician first. This inquires about the exact complaints and their course. If he finds evidence of a malignant tumor in the central nervous system, he usually remits the patient for further investigation to a specialized center for cancer (oncology). Doctors from different disciplines work together to make the right diagnosis. Again, a detailed survey of the medical history (anamnesis) and various examinations are necessary. The most important :

MRI and CT

Medulloblastoma is best visualized in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the patient is injected with a contrast agent into a vein before the examination. The tumor absorbs this contrast agent and illuminates irregularly bright in the MRI image.This allows you to determine its location, size and spread very well. Since a medulloblastoma can also spread into the spinal canal, in addition to the head and a recording of it is made.

If an MRI is not possible for certain reasons, or if a rapid diagnosis is necessary due to an emergency situation, the brain is visualized using computed tomography (CT).

Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid

The brain water investigation (CSF diagnostics) complements a detailed diagnosis at the medulloblastoma. The doctor takes with a fine hollow needle something brain water, you mostly from the spinal canal (lumbar puncture). The sample is examined for tumor cells and thus for the presence of metastases in the spinal cord.

biopsy

In addition, a tissue sample of the tumor is usually taken (biopsy) and examined under the microscope. This is necessary to be able to optimally design the subsequent therapy for the patient.

  • Image 1 of 12

    Cancer - eleven nurse's tales

    The fear of cancer inspires the imagination and drives bizarre flowers. The Cancer Information Service has questioned the rumors. From truth to old wives' tales: the biggest cancer myths in the science check.

  • Image 2 of 12

    Cancer by deodorant?

    Deodorants reduce perspiration. And that is supposed to reduce the exudation of pollutants and thus increase the risk of cancer. In fact, it is mainly the kidneys, bladder and intestine that transport pollutants out of the body. Whether ingredients of cosmetics such as parabens or aluminum are harmful is at least doubtful. At the moment this seems unlikely.

  • Picture 3 of 12

    Vitamin pills instead of fruits?

    Do vitamin pills protect better than fruits? Many people seem to believe that and are taking vitamin pills daily. But dietary supplements are expressly not recommended for cancer prevention. Much more important is a balanced diet, my experts. In case of a proven deficiency condition, however, one should provide a sensible supplement in consultation with the doctor.

  • Image 4 of 12

    Unhealthy vegetables?

    There is a grain of truth in every myth. Even vegetables can make you sick: even green tomatoes and raw potatoes contain alkaloids, which are described as slightly toxic. Ripe tomatoes and cooked potatoes, on the other hand, are healthy.

  • Image 5 of 12

    Breast cancer through tight bras?

    A persistent rumor states that too tight bras promote breast cancer. But that belongs in the realm of the Ammenmärchen. Busty but may be prone to cancer. American studies suggest that women with cup size C and D are at higher risk for breast cancer than women with smaller breasts.

  • Image 6 of 12

    Is cancer contagious?

    The fear of contracting a deadly disease has many. For cancer, however, this concern is unjustified - cancer itself can not be infected. However, viruses play a role in the development of cancers such as cervix and stomach cancer.

  • Picture 7 of 12

    Deserved punishment?

    It used to be preached that illness (especially cancer) was the punishment for moral offenses. But that's just a myth used to enforce norms. However, one's own behavior can actually influence cancer risk. Decisive is not the moral attitude, but a healthy lifestyle. He can help reduce the risk.

  • Picture 8 of 12

    Simply starve the cancer?

    Again and again you hear about cancer diets. Can you starve cancer by removing sugar and carbohydrates? This view is not experts. They recommend a balanced diet and gaining or maintaining normal weight. Underweight, however, can be very dangerous for cancer patients.

  • Picture 9 of 12

    Are the hormones to blame?

    Yes and no. Hormones actually affect the development of some cancers. However, the artificial intake can have both protective and harmful effects. Estrogen and progestin prevention may increase the risk of breast cancer to a small extent, but it protects against uterine and ovarian cancer. Data on hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms are clearer - it is riskier.

  • Picture 10 of 12

    Wake up OPs tumors?

    Biopsies and surgeries are standard in cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, some patients fear that needles and knifes rouse cancer cells and make them aggressive. Others believe that the air that gets to the tumor gives it the opportunity to develop. At the moment there are no indications.

  • Picture 11 of 12

    Miracle pill for cancer?

    Again and again, self-proclaimed healers offer alleged miracle pills and cures against cancer. The only ones who benefit from it, however, are the quacks themselves. In the worst case, the desperate sick neglect the conventional medical therapy, which could perhaps save their lives. A secret recipe against cancer is not in sight. But there are also alternative healing methods that can support the cancer therapy or mitigate their side effects.

  • Image 12 of 12

    Injuries as a cause?

    Sometimes the connection seems clear: Some time after an injury, the doctor finds a tumor at the same site. In fact, assumptions that bumps, bruises, bruises, bruises, and other traumas promote cancer development go back to outdated views several centuries ago. The exception: Lymphedema or burn scars may be the cause of certain tumors. This happens very rarely.

Medulloblastoma: treatment

Because of its malignancy, medulloblastoma requires rapid and intensive treatment.

Medulloblastoma: surgery

The treatment of choice for medulloblastoma is surgery. The surgeons try to remove as much as possible the entire tumor. Since the medulloblastoma mostly grows into the surrounding brain structures, this goal can almost never be achieved. That's why more and more treatments follow after surgery.

Medulloblastoma: radiation and chemotherapy

If there are no tumor lesions (metastases), children are irradiated in the area of ​​the head and spinal cord for three to five years after surgery and then treated with chemotherapeutic agents. This should also destroy individual tumor cells in the brain waterways.

If the medulloblastoma has already formed metastases, an individualized and intensified treatment plan will be developed.

If possible, children under the age of three to five should not be irradiated. You will receive chemotherapy directly after surgery. Usually, several drugs that kill the cancer cells are combined. Examples are chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine, CCNU and cisplatin.

Shunt implantation

Sometimes the medulloblastoma transfers brain waterways. If these can not be reopened by an operation, the brain water must be artificially derived. To do this, the surgeons place a small tube in the cerebrospinal fluid (liquor shunt). In addition, the brain water can either drain into an outer container or into the body. In 80 percent of cases, the liquor shunt does not have to be left permanently. As soon as the brain water drains off again by itself, it can be removed again.

Accompanying therapy measures

In addition, intracranial pressure symptoms can be treated with the cortisone preparation dexamethasone. Mostly it is used in the period of surgery and radiotherapy.

Depending on the symptoms, rehabilitation may be followed by acute hospital treatment. Psychosocial care for patients and their families is also available in most hospitals.

Read more about the investigations

  • MRI
  • lumbar puncture
  • Neurological examination
  • perimetry

Examination and treatment

For more information on examination and treatment, see the article Brain Tumor.

Read more about the therapies

  • craniotomy

Medulloblastoma: disease course and prognosis

The course of the disease and the prognosis depend on different criteria for a medulloblastoma. It is favorable if the tumor can be removed completely surgically, there are no metastases and there are no tumor cells in the brain water. If individual tumor cells remain in the head after the operation, the tumor can grow again (recurrence). Relapses usually occur in the first three years, but in rare cases may still occur ten years after successful therapy. Therefore, all patients should have follow-up examinations for many years after successful therapy. With intensive therapy today more than half of the children can with one medulloblastoma be cured.


Like This? Share With Friends: