The penis consists of the sections penis root, penis shaft and penis glans. Read more about structure and function of the penis!


Of the penis (Limb, phallus) represents - together with the scrotum - the external male reproductive organ. The semen (semen) formed in the testicle and matured in the epididymis (sperm) reach the ejaculation through the member to the outside. Read all important information about the penis: anatomy, function and common diseases!

What is the penis?

The penis and scrotum together form the outer genitals of the man. The penis structure includes the three sections of the penis root, penis shaft and glans penis.


Via the penis root (Radix), the limb is attached to the pelvic floor and the lower pubis. It consists of three parts in the area of ​​the pelvic floor and is covered by a muscle (Musculus ischiocavernosus).

Penis shaft (penis body)

The penis body (corpus) or shaft is surrounded at its base (bulbus penis) by a muscle. There are three cavernous bodies in it:

The paired penile erectile tissue "corpus cavernosum penis" is important for the erection. It lies laterally at the top of the limb. In the area of ​​the penis root, it splits into two branches (crura penis), which are connected via muscles and ligaments to the abdominal wall and symphysis (pubic symphysis).

A third corpus cavernosum (corpus spongiosum penis) has its approach to the perineum (bulbus penis) and runs at the bottom of the penis. It surrounds the urethra and is partially divided by a ligament. This, too, can swell in principle, but remains compressible, because it is surrounded by a rough, hardly stretchable connective tissue envelope. This is important because the urethra inside must remain consistent during ejaculation.

On the underside of the limb runs the raphe (raphe penis) - a "seam" that is more pigmented than the surrounding tissue. This raphe, which continues on the scrotum, is a fusion line of symmetrical body parts that dates back to the embryonic period.


The penile glans (glans penis) is formed by the front end of the paired penile erectile tissue. This keeps the glans soft and compressible even with a strong erection. This erectile tissue is framed by a muscle (bulbospongiosus muscle), whose contraction carries the sperm ejected during ejaculation.

The thin, slippery skin that surrounds the limb forms the so-called foreskin (prepuce) on the glans. During erection, the foreskin retreats so that the glans protrudes. A small band (foreskin tape, Frenulum praeputii) on the underside of the glans prevents the foreskin from pushing back too much.

At the tip of the glans, the urethra opens to the outside. This opening is called in the jargon "Ostium urethrae externum".

What is the function of the penis?

During sexual intercourse, the limb brings the sperm cells as close as possible to the woman's cervix. In order to penetrate the vagina, it must swell up. Important for this erection is the paired penile erectile tissue. It fills with blood on sexual arousal, making the limb stiff.

In addition, urine is excreted via the urethra in the penis.

Where is the penis?

The penis is located between the legs of the man and hangs freely on the scrotum.

What problems can the penis cause?

Balanitis is an inflammation of the penile glans. Usually, the foreskin is also inflamed at the same time, which physicians then call balanoposthitis. Typical symptoms include a painful redness of the glans, often associated with itching.

Priapism is a painful permanent erection lasting at least two hours. Usually there is no reason to find it. In the remaining cases, there are various illnesses, certain drugs, drugs or alcohol behind it. Priapism is an emergency that should be treated as quickly as possible.

A congenital or acquired curvature of the penis is called penile deviation.

Physicians refer to the congenital or acquired narrowing of the foreskin as phimosis. This narrowing prevents the prepuce from retracting over the glans penis or only in pain.

Penile carcinoma is a malignant tumor of the limb that is rare. Most affected are older men.

Various venereal diseases (such as syphilis, gonorrhea) as well as fungal infections can lead to unpleasant symptoms on the penis to lead.

Like This? Share With Friends: