Bruise - Blue spots
Whether in sports or everyday life - bruising is quick: a collision with the bicycle handlebar, a rude braking inline skating, a collision with another football player or the slip-up in the pool. Some notice the pain only after some time. If a blood vessel breaks through an injury (such as contusion, fall or impact) and blood enters the surrounding tissue, it is called a bruise (Hematoma).
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- Sports injuries - bruise
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Symptoms - red, green, yellow
If a superficial vessel is affected, you soon see the typical bruise that takes on different colors as you heal. The color changes occur when the blood is broken down by the body:
- red - A vessel ruptures and the liquid blood enters the tissue, the blood pigment hemoglobin stains it red.
- dark-blue - the blood clots.
- Brown black - Proteins degrade the blood pigment to the bile pigment choleglobin / verdoglobin.
- dark green - further conversion to the bile pigment biliverdin.
- yellow-brown - The end product of the degradation is the bile pigment bilirubin, which turns the spot yellowish
This degradation process and thus the skin discoloration take about two weeks. In addition to the discoloration also occurs a local swelling, which hurts to pressure.
If not superficial, but deeper vessels are injured, the bruise is not visible as a color change, but as swelling. The jammed blood puts pressure on the surrounding tissue, which is usually painful. Extensive bleeding can also affect the functioning of muscles and joints. Deep injuries sometimes cause a bruise after a few days. In the worst case, a deep hematoma can not be completely dissolved and it calcifies in the muscle.
In the typical sports injuries, bruising usually occurs on the affected joint (jump, wrist, etc.) or in the area of the affected muscles (for example, calf bruising with bruising in the calf area).
Bruising is harmless in most cases and disappears on its own after a few days. However, a hematoma in the skull or in the eye socket can be dangerous. It can press on eye muscles, nerves and the eyeball. Or there are additional injuries such as bleeding in the brain. This also applies to people who take blood-thinning medication and hurt themselves. In this case, the drugs inhibit blood clotting and can lead to extensive bleeding.
- If only bruising has occurred, you should cool the affected area for about 15 to 20 minutes. You can use ice packs, (ice creams with caution) or envelopes with cold water. The cold causes the blood vessels to contract and less blood to escape. But: do not lay ice directly on the skin due to the risk of local frostbite!
- Store the injured area - if possible; This also reduces the blood flow to the injured area.
- Avoid further movements; as a result, the muscles would continue to be well supplied with blood and the hemorrhage intensified.
- Do not overstress the affected body part a few days after the injury. Otherwise it can lead to a re-bleeding and further vascular injuries.
- In the first 24 hours: Drink no alcohol, no local heat treatment, no massage in the injury area!
When to the doctor?
In case of suspected additional injuries such as fractures or joint injuries, large bruises that spread quickly, severe impact injuries to the head or bruises of the genitals you must definitely consult a doctor. For example, falls on the buttocks and hips (such as when skating) can lead to very large bruises.
If the pain or swelling is very pronounced or body functions such as joint mobility are restricted, you should also seek the help of a specialist.
Usually, a doctor can already make a diagnosis based on the description of the accident and the symptoms. In some cases, the bruise, especially when it is deeper, is represented by an ultrasound examination in more detail.
Hematomas, which are very large and spread rapidly, must be treated as soon as possible in the hospital, as such injuries can lead to life-threatening shock states.Very large hematomas or bruises in the immediate vicinity of a joint are sometimes operated on. The clotted blood is removed. After healing a hematoma, no discomfort or pain should be left behind.
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The best tips for football fans
The best tips on how to stay fit despite nerve-racking games and increased consumption of beer and chips!
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The neighbors may be annoyed if you are loudly suffering under the gates of the opposing team. But a recent study found that an exciting game increases the enjoyment for viewers. The closer the victory was achieved, the bigger the joy of the fans afterwards. Speaking of volume: If you reach for the vuvuzela yourself, or if a fan with the plastic trumpet is around you, ear plugs will help to prevent hearing damage. They are also available as special "Vuvustops".
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The tip, a lot to drink, is not only valid for outdoor public viewing. On the one hand, one quickly forgets to fill up one's own fluid reserves in the excitement and mitgrassing - circulatory problems and headaches threaten. On the other hand, drinks fill the stomach and reduce cravings for (potentially unhealthy) snacks. But anyone who thinks he can cover the fluid requirement with beer is wrong. Alcoholic drinks are not suitable and also contain many calories. In addition to non-alcoholic beer, especially juice spritzers, unsweetened tea or water are a good alternative.
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Pepper strips, carrots and fennel with delicious homemade yoghurt dip quickly fill you up thanks to their fiber. At the same time, fingers, tongue and jaw muscles are busy and not easily tempted by unhealthy finger food. If that's too many vitamins, you can upgrade the vegetable mix with trail mix. Also, pretzel sticks are a comparatively healthy snack as they are low in fat and low in calories. But watch out for high blood pressure: Because the rods contain a lot of salt, you should better keep away from it!
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Relaxation for the eyes
If the flat-screen TV is in the blazing sunlight or the window is reflected in it, even the most boring game for the eyes offers no relaxation. Therefore: Darken room or increase the luminosity of the TV or projector - then the eyes do not have to be exhausting and you have more of the game. And the outdoor public viewing, in addition to the use of sunscreen for the skin: put on sunglasses for good visibility!
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Fed up watching football
After a month of regular television evenings, most fans are weighing in extra kilos. Growing hip pads can be avoided by the right nutritional tactics. Nutritional tip: Have a normal, well-balanced meal before kickoff. For those who are already full, uses much less often to chips and fast food - even if they are right in the face.
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Lots of legroom
In the full pub around the corner you are of course happy about a collapsed seat. But beware! Who sits too tightly squeezed too long, risked as in long air travel blood clots in the leg veins (leg vein thrombosis). A comfortable chair with enough legroom and a regular change between sitting and standing - for example in the breaks between games - do the circulation well.
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Check heart health
Not everyone who enjoys a national team game in front of the TV must go to the doctor. But passionate fans with cardiovascular disease do not hurt to be thoroughly checked. Because at thrilling football matches, the number of heart attacks and arrhythmia traditionally increases noticeably.
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Every exciting football season comes to an end. According to experts, the enthusiastic fans are then threatened with "social hangovers" - an inner emptiness and frustration because suddenly an important part of life is gone. Anyone who takes care of a replacement job early or quickly picks up on the old hobbies does not fall into the mood.